Project 6 Draft 1

Andrew Schlageter

“There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and accelerated hypertension. In mild hypertension smoking cigarettes has a distinct pressor effect and caffeine a small but more prolonged pressor action. Coffee and cigarette smoking together have an additive effect on blood pressure. We have examined the interaction of cigarette smoking and drinking coffee on the BP of six patients who presented with accelerated hypertension  and were heavy smokers and caffeine users. After initial control of the blood pressure, the effects of smoking alone, coffee plus smoking, and placebo were examined in a balanced cross-over study. Baseline blood pressure averaged 154/91 mm Hg and remained stable for 90 min after abstention from smoking and caffeine (placebo). Cigarette smoking without caffeine caused a modest rise in blood pressure, but the combination of coffee plus cigarette smoking caused a progressive increase in blood pressure to an average 21/17 mm Hg (P < 0.05/P < 0.002) higher than placebo values. The effect of coffee was significantly additive to that of smoking alone. Smoking plus coffee ingestion shifted the blood pressure from acceptable (155/94 mm Hg) to poor control (175/107 mm Hg). This pressor effect was observed despite treatment, and with amounts of caffeine and cigarettes which were in no way unusual for these patients. It is proposed that the association of cigarette smoking with accelerated hypertension may reflect an extreme pressor effect of combined smoking and caffeine use in some patients.”

Although, caffeine consumption can do negative things to the human body such as cause high blood pressure and increase the need to smoke, it also does some good for the body.

“It’s hard to know for sure whether coffee is really causing good effects — lifestyles or behaviors associated with coffee consumption may also influence health. Also, different people have different tolerances for coffee it can have short-term side effects that make people steer clear of morning brews.

So, doctors aren’t quite convinced enough to prescribe coffee, but they probably don’t need to, because so many people indulge in it anyway. The point is: In general, regular coffee drinkers won’t be discouraged from continuing the habit, although there are exceptions. More is known about the overall association between coffee and positive health effects than about the mechanism behind it, said Dr. Alberto Ascherio, professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health.

Antioxidants are one potential reason that good outcomes are seen from coffee. Our bodies produce oxygen radicals, which are damaging to DNA. Antioxidants prevent them from doing damage, Ascherio said.

Although antioxidants are found in fruits and vegetables, research has shown that coffee is the top source of antioxidants for Americans.

Caffeine itself may also contribute to coffee’s positive effects on brain health. That may be because caffeine is an antagonist to adenosine receptors. These receptors normally slow down neural activity when the chemical adenosine binds to them, producing a sleepy feeling. But if caffeine binds to the receptors, the activity of neurons speeds up.

Coffee also appears to lower levels of insulin and estrogen, which is perhaps why a study last year found a lower risk of endometrial cancer in coffee-drinking women. Insulin also plays a role in prostate cancer, another disease coffee may help stave off. The evidence is fairly strong for coffee preventing type II diabetes and Parkinson’s, and reasonably good for antidepressant effects, too, doctors say. Just in the last few months, several new studies have been published highlighting other possible benefits of coffee. Again, none of them prove that coffee causes any effects at all; they are just associations.

People who drink two 8-ounce cups of coffee daily appear to have an 11% lower risk of developing heart failure, compared to noncoffee drinkers. That’s according to a meta-analysis published in June in the American Heart Association’s journal Circulation: Heart Failure, based on pooling the results of five studies. The researchers did not take into account the strength of coffee, what time of day it was drunk, or whether it was caffeinated — factors that could be related.

Coffee drinkers may also be protecting themselves against basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, according to a July report in the journal Cancer Research. Other caffeinated beverages also seemed to reduce the risk of this slow-growing cancer. But scientists don’t yet know why this effect was observed.

Increased coffee consumption also is associated with longer life, according to Research in the New England Journal of Medicine. Again, no one knows what about coffee would make people live longer, but Ascherio theorizes it could be the protection against type II diabetes, Parkinson’s, depression and suicidal tendencies.

Some of the strongest evidence comes from studies on type II diabetes. According to a 2009 meta-analysis, the risk of type II diabetes goes down with each cup of coffee consumed daily. Additionally, a 2007 meta-analysis found a correlation between increased coffee consumption and lower risk of liver cancer. But it’s not enough to tell anyone who doesn’t already drink coffee to start.”

Works Cited

 

“Result Filters.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7752180>.

 

“Science Confirms: The More Coffee You Drink, The Longer You Will Live.” Authority Nutrition. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <http://authoritynutrition.com/how-coffee-makes-you-live-longer/>.

Post Write

I believe that I am off to a decent start information wise, but I feel as thought I need to summarized the quotations that I have into my own words

One thought on “Project 6 Draft 1

  1. Reviewer’s Name: Jasmine Pedro
    Date: April 28th, 2014
    Partner’s Name and Title of Paper Reviewed: Andrew Schlageter

    In your own words, fully and with precision, describe what the assignment is asking the writer (your partner) to do? Please use your own words rather than merely quote from the assignment.

    In this assignment the writer is asked to right a causal analysis of a recent trend of the writer’s interest. This causal analysis should be typed, double spaced, and 3-5 pages approximately 900 words. At the end of the causal analysis should include an annotated bibliography. The writer will document and analyze a certain trend that shows a pattern of behavior for a specific social group showing a change overtime ( increase or decrease). The trend should be described enough for the reader to determine whether it is a good or bad trend for the community. A thesis needs to be clearly stated about the trend. The writer needs to provide documentation the trend exists with evidence, such as statistics, graphs, visuals etc. The writer needs to explain what their given evidence such as their pictures shows of the effects of the trend. Causes and Effects of the trend should be discussed, showing multiple causes a trend is not limited to one cause. All sources must be cited in MLA format. At the end of the paper the writer must list and annotate all sources cited. Support of the trend should be drawn from at least two scholarly articles, if possible one being the article the writer annotated in project 5. The writer should include signal phrases and in text citations when quoting or paraphrasing a source. A works cited list is expected from the writer.

    To what extent has your partner met the expectations of the assignment? Please pick a passage as illustration and describe what works well there, referring to the assignment checklist.

    “Although, caffeine consumption can do negative things to the human body such as cause high blood pressure and increase the need to smoke, it also does some good for the body.”

    My partner has met most of my expectations of this assignment. There is a clearly stated thesis that coffee also does good for the body. My partner gives a lot of good/ interesting examples of how coffee can be beneficial by including studies, that are supported with in text citations and quotes from specialists such as doctors. At the end of the paper my partner has a work cited section with his scholarly articles in mla format.

    What area needs more work? Why? Please pick a passage as illustration, and describe what isn’t working, referring to the assignment checklist.

    “There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and accelerated hypertension. In mild hypertension smoking cigarettes has a distinct pressor effect and caffeine a small but more prolonged pressor action. Coffee and cigarette smoking together have an additive effect on blood pressure…. It is proposed that the association of cigarette smoking with accelerated hypertension may reflect an extreme pressor effect of combined smoking and caffeine use in some patients.”

    I don’t think this really works as a good introduction to the writer’s trend. I get that the writer is introducing the bad effects of coffee that people typically think of getting from drinking coffee, but after reading further into the causal analysis cigarette smoking isn’t talked about in the rest of the paper. The main problem I have with this causal analysis is although the thesis is clear that Coffee has good benefits as well as bad, I’m not exactly sure what the actual trend is. I am assuming the intended trend is “drinking coffee” as a change in the community’s behavior, but I do not see the correlation my partner was trying to explain. My partner doesn’t explain the increase/ decrease of people drinking coffee due to these good or bad effects, which I feel is a really important point to make if the trend is “drinking coffee”. The rest of the paper is explaining why coffee is good, but my partner isn’t trying to persuade anyone to drink it, he even concludes “But it’s not enough to tell anyone who doesn’t already drink coffee to start”. The trend just needs to be emphasized and explained better. There can’t be causes and effects if the trend is not clear, there are beneficial effects of coffee, but no causes of why people start to drink coffee. I feel like this is more of a persuasive essay than an analysis of a trend. It’s too confusing when you try to think of this paper as an analysis.

    Please indicate TWO questions about the draft and at least ONE suggestion for ways to improve it.
    1. What exactly is the trend of this paper?
    2. How does this paper show a change in a community’s behavior? I feel like this paper is just introducing a new perspective on coffee.

    One suggestion I have to improve your causal analysis is by changing when you decide to change paragraphs. I feel like all the good benefits of drinking coffee could have been compacted or incorporated together in fewer paragraphs, rather than starting a new paragraph for every good benefit of drinking coffee saying all the benefits listed were regarding health. And to emphasize the facts of the trend more than it’s benefits.

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